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Plan 9 from Bell Labs 2012-10-17

David du Colombier 6 years ago
parent
commit
cc053882c1
7 changed files with 16 additions and 1333 deletions
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sys/man/1/2a

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-.TH 8A 1 
-.SH NAME
-0a, 5a, 6a, 8a, 9a, ka, qa, va \- assemblers
-.SH SYNOPSIS
-.B 8a
-[
-.I option ...
-]
-[
-.I name ...
-]
-.br
-etc.
-.SH DESCRIPTION
-These programs
-assemble the named files into object files
-for the corresponding architectures; see
-.IR 8c (1)
-for the correspondence between an architecture and the character
-.RB ( 6 ,
-.RB 8 ,
-etc.) that specifies it.
-The assemblers handle the most common C preprocessor directives and the associated
-command-line options
-.BR -D
-and
-.BR -I .
-Other options are:
-.TP
-.BI -o " obj"
-Place output in file
-.I obj
-(allowed only if there is just one input file).
-Default is to take the last element of the input path name,
-strip any trailing
-.BR .s ,
-and append
-.RI . O ,
-where
-.I O
-is first letter of the assembler's name.
-.SH FILES
-The directory
-.B /sys/include
-is searched for include files after
-machine-dependent files in
-.BR /$objtype/include .
-.SH SOURCE
-.BR /sys/src/cmd/8a ,
-etc.
-.SH SEE ALSO
-.IR 8c (1),
-.IR 8l (1).
-.PP
-Rob Pike, ``A manual for the Plan 9 assembler''
-.SH BUGS
-The list of assemblers given above is only partial,
-not all architectures are supported on all systems,
-some have been retired and some
-are provided by third parties.

+ 0 - 485
sys/man/1/2c

@@ -1,485 +0,0 @@
-.TH 8C 1
-.SH NAME
-0c, 5c, 6c, 8c, 9c, kc, qc, vc \- C compilers
-.SH SYNOPSIS
-.B 8c
-[
-.I option ...
-]
-[
-.I file ...
-]
-.br
-etc.
-.SH DESCRIPTION
-These commands compile the named C
-.I files
-into object files for the corresponding architecture.
-If there are multiple C
-.IR files ,
-the compilers will attempt to keep
-.B $NPROC
-compilations running concurrently.
-Associated with each compiler is a string
-.IR objtype ,
-for example
-.TF "6c amd64 "
-.PD
-.TP
-.B "0c spim
-little-endian MIPS 3000 family
-.TP
-.B "5c arm
-little-endian ARM
-.TP
-.B "6c amd64
-AMD64 and compatibles (e.g., Intel64)
-.TP
-.B "8c 386
-Intel i386, i486, Pentium, etc.
-.TP
-.B "9c power64
-64-bit PowerPC
-.TP
-.B "kc sparc
-Sun (now Oracle) SPARC
-.TP
-.B "qc power
-PowerPC
-.TP
-.B "vc mips
-big-endian MIPS 3000 family
-.PP
-The compilers handle most preprocessing directives themselves; a complete
-preprocessor is available in
-.IR cpp (1),
-which must be run separately.
-.PP
-Let the first letter of the compiler name be
-.IR O =
-.BR 0 ,
-.BR 5 ,
-.BR 6 ,
-.BR 8 ,
-.BR 9 ,
-.BR k ,
-.BR q ,
-or
-.BR v .
-The output object files end in
-.RI . O .
-The letter is also the prefix of related programs:
-.IB O a
-is the assembler,
-.IB O l
-is the loader.
-Plan 9 conventionally sets the
-.B $objtype
-environment variable to the
-.I objtype
-string appropriate to the current machine's type.
-Plan 9 also conventionally has
-.RI / objtype
-directories, which contain among other things:
-.BR include ,
-for machine-dependent include files;
-.BR lib ,
-for public object code libraries;
-.BR bin ,
-for public programs;
-and
-.BR mkfile ,
-for preconditioning
-.IR mk (1).
-.PP
-The compiler options are:
-.TF Dname
-.PD
-.TP
-.BI -o " obj"
-Place output in file
-.I obj
-(allowed only if there is just one input file).
-Default is to take the last element of the input file name,
-strip any trailing
-.BR .c ,
-and append
-.RI . O .
-.TP
-.B -w
-Print warning messages about unused variables, etc.
-.TP
-.B -B
-Accept functions without a new-style
-ANSI C function prototype.
-By default, the compilers reject functions
-used without a defined prototype,
-although ANSI C permits them.
-.TP
-.BI -D\*S name=def
-.br
-.ns
-.TP
-.BI -D \*Sname
-Define the
-.I name
-to the preprocessor,
-as if by
-.LR #define .
-If no definition is given, the name is defined as
-.LR 1 .
-.TP
-.BI -F
-Enable type-checking of calls to
-.IR print (2)
-and other formatted print routines.  See the discussion
-of extensions, below.
-.TP
-.BI -I \*Sdir
-An
-.L #include
-file whose name does not begin with
-slash
-or is enclosed in double quotes
-is always
-sought first in the directory
-of the
-.I file
-argument.  If this fails,
-the
-.I -.
-flag is given or the name is enclosed in
-.BR <> ,
-it is then sought
-in directories named in
-.B -I
-options,
-then in
-.BR /sys/include ,
-and finally in
-.BR /$objtype/include .
-.TP
-.B -.
-Suppress the automatic searching for include files in
-the directory of the file argument.
-.TP
-.B -N
-Suppress automatic registerization and optimization.
-.TP
-.B -S
-Print an assembly language version of the object code
-on standard output as well as generating the
-.RI . O
-file.
-.TP
-.B -T
-Pass type signatures on all external and global entities.
-The signature is based on the C
-.B signof
-operator.
-See
-.IR dynld (2).
-.TP
-.B -V
-By default, the compilers are non-standardly lax about type equality between
-.B void*
-values and other pointers; this flag requires ANSI C conformance.
-.TP
-.B -p
-Invoke a standard ANSI C preprocessor before compiling.
-.TP
-.B -a
-Instead of compiling, print on standard output acid functions (see
-.IR acid (1))
-for examining structures declared in the source files.
-.TP
-.B -aa
-Like
-.B -a
-except suppress information about structures
-declared in included header files.
-.TP
-.B -n
-When used with
-.B -a
-or
-.BR -aa ,
-places acid functions in
-.IB file .acid
-for input
-.IB file .c ,
-and not on standard output.
-.PP
-The compilers support several extensions to 1989 ANSI C,
-some of which were adopted in later ANSI C standards:
-.TF \|
-.PD
-.TP
-\-
-A structure or union may contain unnamed substructures and subunions.
-The fields of the substructures or
-subunions can then be used as if they were members of the parent
-structure or union (the resolution of a name conflict is unspecified).
-When a pointer to the outer structure or union is used in a context
-that is only legal for the unnamed substructure, the compiler promotes
-the type and adjusts the pointer value to point at the substructure.
-If the unnamed structure or union is of a type with a tag name specified by a
-.B typedef
-statement,
-the unnamed structure or union can be explicitly referenced
-by <struct variable>.<tagname>.
-.TP
-\-
-A structure value can be formed with an expression such as
-.EX
-    (struct S){v1, v2, v3}
-.EE
-where the list elements are values for the fields of struct
-.BR S .
-.TP
-\-
-Array initializers can specify the indices of the array in square
-brackets, as
-.EX
-    int a[] = { [3] 1, [10] 5 };
-.EE
-which initializes the third and tenth elements of the eleven-element array
-.BR a .
-.TP
-\-
-Structure initializers can specify the structure element by using the name
-following a period, as
-.EX
-    struct { int x; int y; } s = { .y 1, .x 5 };
-.EE
-which initializes elements
-.B y
-and then
-.B x
-of the structure
-.BR s .
-These forms also accept the new ANSI C notation, which includes an equal sign:
-.EX
-    int a[] = { [3] = 1, [10] = 5 };
-    struct { int x; int y; } s = { .y = 1, .x = 5 };
-.EE
-.TP
-\-
-A global variable can be dedicated to a register
-by declaring it
-.B "extern register"
-in
-.I all
-modules and libraries.
-.TP
-\-
-A
-.B #pragma
-of the form
-.EX
-    #pragma lib "libbio.a"
-.EE
-records that the program needs to be loaded with file
-.BR /$objtype/lib/libbio.a ;
-such lines, typically placed in library header files, obviate the
-.B -l
-option of the loaders.  To help identify files in non-standard directories,
-within the file names in the
-.B #pragmas
-the string
-.B $M
-represents the name of the architecture
-(e.g.,
-.BR mips )
-and
-.B $O
-represents its identifying character
-(e.g.,
-.BR v ).
-.TP
-\-
-A
-.B #pragma
-of the form
-.EX
-    #pragma varargck argpos error 2
-.EE
-tells the compiler that the second argument to
-.B error
-is a
-.BR print -like
-format string (see
-.IR print (2))
-that identifies the handling of subsequent arguments.
-The
-.B #pragma
-.EX
-    #pragma varargck type "s" char*
-.EE
-says that the format verb
-.B s
-processes an argument of type
-.BR char *.
-The
-.B #pragma
-.EX
-    #pragma varargck flag 'c'
-.EE
-says that
-.B c
-is a flag character.
-These
-.B #pragmas
-are used, if the
-.B -F
-option is enabled, to type-check calls to
-.B print
-and other such routines.
-.TP
-\-
-A
-.B #pragma
-with any of the following forms:
-.EX
-    #pragma incomplete \fItype\fP
-    #pragma incomplete struct \fItag\fP
-    #pragma incomplete union \fItag\fP
-.EE
-where
-.I type
-is a
-.BR typedef 'd
-name for a structure or union type, and
-.I tag
-is a structure or union tag,
-tells the compiler that
-the corresponding type
-should have its signature calculated as an incomplete type
-even if it is subsequently fully defined.
-This allows the type signature mechanism to work in the presence
-of opaque types declared in header files, with their full definitions
-visible only to the code which manipulates them.
-With some imported software it might be necessary to turn off the
-signature generation completely for a large body of code (typically
-at the start and end of a particular include file).
-If
-.I type
-is the word
-.BR _off_ ,
-signature generation is turned off; if
-.I type
-is the word
-.BR _on_ ,
-the compiler will generate signatures.
-.TP
-\-
-The C++ comment
-.RB ( //
-to end of line)
-is accepted as well as the normal
-convention of
-.B /*
-.BR */ .
-.TP
-\-
-The compilers accept
-.B long
-.B long
-variables as a 64-bit type.
-The standard header typedefs this to
-.BR vlong .
-Arithmetic on
-.B  vlong
-values is usually emulated by a run-time library,
-though in at least
-.IR 8c ,
-only division and modulus use the run-time library
-and the other operators generate in-line code
-(and
-.I uvlong-expression
-.I divison-or-modulus
-.BI "(1<<" constant )
-will turn into in-line bit operations,
-as is done for shorter
-.I unsigned
-expressions).
-.SH EXAMPLE
-For the 386, produce a program
-.B prog
-from C files
-.BR main.c
-and
-.BR sub.c :
-.IP
-.EX
-8c -FVw main.c sub.c
-8l -o prog main.8 sub.8
-.EE
-.SH FILES
-.TF /$objtype/include
-.TP
-.B /sys/include
-system area for machine-independent
-.B #include
-directives.
-.TP
-.B /$objtype/include
-system area for machine-dependent
-.B #include
-directives.
-.SH SOURCE
-.TF /sys/src/cmd/8c,\ etc.
-.TP
-.B /sys/src/cmd/cc
-machine-independent part
-.TP
-.BR /sys/src/cmd/8c ,\ etc.
-machine-dependent part
-.SH "SEE ALSO"
-.IR 8a (1),
-.IR 8l (1),
-.IR cpp (1),
-.IR mk (1),
-.IR nm (1),
-.IR pcc (1),
-.IR db (1),
-.IR acid (1)
-.\" .IR ansitize (1)
-.PP
-Rob Pike,
-``How to Use the Plan 9 C Compiler''
-.SH BUGS
-The list of compilers given above is only partial,
-not all architectures are supported on all systems,
-some have been retired and some
-are provided by third parties.
-.PP
-The default preprocessor only handles
-.LR #define ,
-.LR #include ,
-.LR #undef ,
-.LR #ifdef ,
-.LR #line ,
-and
-.LR #ifndef .
-For a full ANSI preprocessor, use
-the
-.B p
-option.
-.PP
-The default search order for include files
-differs to that of
-.IR cpp (1).
-.PP
-Some new features of C99, the 1999 ANSI C standard,
-are implemented.
-No new features of C11, the 2011 ANSI C standard,
-are implemented.
-.PP
-The implementation of
-.B vlong
-assignment can use a static location
-and this can be disturbed by interrupts
-(e.g., notes)
-.RI ( 8c
-at least).

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sys/man/1/2l

@@ -1,220 +0,0 @@
-.TH 8L 1 
-.SH NAME
-0l, 5l, 6l, 8l, 9l, kl, ql, vl \- loaders
-.SH SYNOPSIS
-.B 8l
-[
-.I option ...
-]
-[
-.I file ...
-]
-.br
-etc.
-.SH DESCRIPTION
-These commands
-load the named
-.I files
-into executable files for the corresponding architectures; see
-.IR 8c (1)
-for the correspondence between an architecture and the character
-.RB ( 6 ,
-.RB 8 ,
-etc.) that specifies it.
-The files should be object files or libraries (archives of object files)
-for the appropriate architecture.
-Also, a name like
-.BI -l ext
-represents the library
-.BI lib ext .a
-in
-.BR /$objtype/lib ,
-where
-.I objtype
-is one of
-.BR 386 ,
-etc. as listed in
-.IR 8c (1).
-The libraries must have tables of contents
-(see
-.IR ar (1)).
-.PP
-In practice, 
-.B -l
-options are rarely necessary as the header files for
-the libraries cause their archives to be included automatically in the load
-(see
-.IR 8c (1)).
-For example, any program that includes header file
-.B libc.h
-causes the loader
-to search the C library
-.BR /$objtype/lib/libc.a .
-Also, the loader creates an undefined symbol
-.B _main
-(or
-.B _mainp
-if profiling is enabled) to force loading of the
-startup linkage from the C library.
-.PP
-The order of search to resolve undefined symbols is to load all files and libraries
-mentioned explicitly on the command line, and then to resolve remaining symbols
-by searching in topological order
-libraries mentioned in header files included by files already loaded.
-When scanning such libraries, the algorithm is to scan each library repeatedly until
-no new undefined symbols are picked up, then to start on the next library.  Thus if library
-.I A
-needs
-.I B
-which needs
-.I A
-again, it may be necessary to mention
-.I A
-explicitly so it will be read a second time.
-.PP
-The loader options are:
-.TP 0.75i
-.B -l
-(As a bare option.)
-Suppress the default loading of the startup linkage and libraries
-specified by header files.
-.TP
-.BI -o " out"
-Place output in file
-.IR out .
-Default is
-.IB O .out\f1,
-where
-.I O
-is the first letter of the loader name.
-.TP
-.B -p
-Insert profiling code into the executable output; no special action is needed
-during compilation or assembly.
-.TP
-.B -e
-Insert (\fLe\fPmbedded) tracing code into the executable output; no special action is needed
-during compilation or assembly.
-The added code calls
-.L _tracein
-at function entries
-and
-.L _traceout
-at function exits.
-.TP
-.B -s
-Strip the symbol tables from the output file.
-.TP
-.B -a
-Print the object code in assembly language, with addresses.
-.TP
-.B -v
-Print debugging output that annotates the activities of the load.
-.TP
-.BI -M
-.RI ( Kl
-only) Generate instructions rather than calls to emulation routines
-for multiply and divide.
-.TP
-.BI -E symbol
-The entry point for the binary is
-.I symbol
-(default
-.BR _main ;
-.B _mainp
-under
-.BR -p ).
-.TP
-.BI -x " [ file ]"
-Produce an export table in the executable.
-The optional
-.I file
-restricts the exported symbols to those listed in the file.
-See
-.IR dynld (2).
-.TP
-.BI -u " [ file ]"
-Produce an export table, import table
-and a dynamic load section in the executable.
-The optional
-.I file
-restricts the imported symbols to those listed in the file.
-See
-.IR dynld (2).
-.TP
-.B -t
-(\c
-.I 5l
-and
-.I vl
-only)
-Move strings into the text segment.
-.TP
-.BI -H n
-Executable header is type
-.IR n .
-The meaning of the types is architecture-dependent; typically
-type 1 is Plan 9 boot format and type 2 is the
-regular Plan 9 format, the default.  These are reversed on the MIPS.
-The Next boot format is 3.  Type 4 in
-.I vl
-creates a MIPS executable for an SGI Unix system.
-.TP
-.BI -T t
-The text segment starts at address
-.IR t .
-.TP
-.BI -D d
-The data segment starts at address
-.IR d .
-.TP
-.BI -R r
-The text segment is rounded to a multiple of
-.I r
-(if
-.I r
-is nonzero).
-.PP
-The numbers in the above options can begin with
-.L 0x
-or
-.L 0
-to change the default base from decimal to hexadecimal or octal.
-The defaults for the values depend on the compiler and the
-header type.
-.PP
-The loaded image has several symbols inserted by the loader:
-.B etext
-is the address of the end of the text segment;
-.B bdata
-is the address of the beginning of the data segment;
-.B edata
-is the address of the end of the data segment;
-and
-.B end
-is the address of the end of the bss segment, and of the program.
-.SH FILES
-.TF /$objtype/lib
-.TP
-.B /$objtype/lib
-for
-.BI -l lib
-arguments.
-.SH SOURCE
-.B /sys/src/cmd/8l
-etc.
-.SH "SEE ALSO"
-.IR 8c (1),
-.IR 8a (1),
-.IR ar (1),
-.IR nm (1),
-.IR db (1),
-.IR prof (1)
-.PP
-Rob Pike,
-``How to Use the Plan 9 C Compiler''
-.SH BUGS
-The list of loaders given above is only partial,
-not all architectures are supported on all systems,
-some have been retired and some
-are provided by third parties.

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@@ -1,32 +1,5 @@
 0intro 0intro
 intro 0intro
-0a 2a
-2a 2a
-5a 2a
-6a 2a
-8a 2a
-9a 2a
-ka 2a
-qa 2a
-va 2a
-0c 2c
-2c 2c
-5c 2c
-6c 2c
-8c 2c
-9c 2c
-kc 2c
-qc 2c
-vc 2c
-0l 2l
-2l 2l
-5l 2l
-6l 2l
-8l 2l
-9l 2l
-kl 2l
-ql 2l
-vl 2l
 0a 8a
 5a 8a
 6a 8a

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@@ -10,18 +10,6 @@
 -  introduction to Plan 9
 <DD><TT> intro</TT>
 </DT>
-<DT><A HREF="/magic/man2html/1/2a">2a</A>
--  assemblers
-<DD><TT> 0a, 5a, 6a, 8a, 9a, ka, qa, va</TT>
-</DT>
-<DT><A HREF="/magic/man2html/1/2c">2c</A>
--  C compilers
-<DD><TT> 0c, 5c, 6c, 8c, 9c, kc, qc, vc</TT>
-</DT>
-<DT><A HREF="/magic/man2html/1/2l">2l</A>
--  loaders
-<DD><TT> 0l, 5l, 6l, 8l, 9l, kl, ql, vl</TT>
-</DT>
 <DT><A HREF="/magic/man2html/1/8a">8a</A>
 -  assemblers
 <DD><TT> 0a, 5a, 6a, 8a, 9a, ka, qa, va</TT>

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