constitution 44 KB

  1. We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more
  2. perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic
  3. Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the
  4. general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to
  5. ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this
  6. Constitution for the United States of America.
  7. Article I.
  8. Section 1. All legislative Powers herein granted shall be
  9. vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall
  10. consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.
  11. Section 2. The House of Representatives shall be composed of
  12. Members chosen every second Year by the People of the
  13. several States, and the Electors in each State shall have
  14. the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most
  15. numerous Branch of the State Legislature.
  16. No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have
  17. attained to the Age of twenty-five Years, and been seven
  18. Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not,
  19. when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he
  20. shall be chosen.
  21. [Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among
  22. the several States which may be included within this Union,
  23. according to their respective Numbers, which shall be
  24. determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons,
  25. including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and
  26. excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other
  27. Persons.] The actual Enumeration shall be made within three
  28. Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United
  29. States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in
  30. such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The Number of
  31. Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty
  32. Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one
  33. Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made,
  34. the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse three,
  35. Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations
  36. one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four,
  37. Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia
  38. ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia
  39. three.
  40. When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State,
  41. the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of
  42. Election to fill such Vacancies.
  43. The House of Representatives shall chuse their Speaker and
  44. other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of
  45. Impeachment.
  46. Section 3. The Senate of the United States shall be composed
  47. of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature
  48. thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one
  49. Vote.
  50. Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of
  51. the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may
  52. be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the
  53. first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second
  54. Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth
  55. Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth
  56. Year, so that one-third may be chosen every second Year; and
  57. if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the
  58. Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive
  59. thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next
  60. Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such
  61. Vacancies.
  62. No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to
  63. the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of
  64. the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an
  65. Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.
  66. The Vice President of the United States shall be President
  67. of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be
  68. equally divided.
  69. The Senate shall chuse their other Officers, and also a
  70. President pro tempore, in the absence of the Vice President,
  71. or when he shall exercise the Office of President of the
  72. United States.
  73. The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all
  74. Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be
  75. on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United
  76. States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no
  77. Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two
  78. thirds of the Members present.
  79. Judgement in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further
  80. than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold
  81. and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the
  82. United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be
  83. liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and
  84. Punishment, according to Law.
  85. Section 4. The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections
  86. for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in
  87. each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may
  88. at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as
  89. to the Place of Chusing Senators.
  90. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and
  91. such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December,
  92. unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.
  93. Section 5. Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections,
  94. Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a
  95. Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business;
  96. but a smaller number may adjourn from day to day, and may be
  97. authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in
  98. such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may
  99. provide.
  100. Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings,
  101. punish it Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the
  102. Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.
  103. Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from
  104. time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may
  105. in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of
  106. the Members of either House on any question shall, at the
  107. Desire of one fifth of those Present, be entered on the
  108. Journal.
  109. Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall,
  110. without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than
  111. three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the
  112. two Houses shall be sitting.
  113. Section 6. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a
  114. Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law,
  115. and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They
  116. shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the
  117. Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at
  118. the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and
  119. returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in
  120. either House, they shall not be Questioned in any other
  121. Place.
  122. No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for
  123. which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under
  124. the Authority of the United States, which shall have been
  125. created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been encreased
  126. during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the
  127. United States, shall be a Member of either House during his
  128. Continuance in Office.
  129. Section 7. All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in
  130. the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or
  131. concur with Amendments as on other Bills.
  132. Every Bill which shall have passed the House of
  133. Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a
  134. Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If
  135. he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it,
  136. with his Objections to that House in which it shall have
  137. originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their
  138. Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such
  139. Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass
  140. the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to
  141. the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered,
  142. and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become
  143. a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall
  144. be determined by Yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons
  145. voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the
  146. Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be
  147. returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted)
  148. after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be
  149. a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the
  150. Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which
  151. Case it shall not be a Law.
  152. Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of
  153. the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary
  154. (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to
  155. the President of the United States; and before the Same
  156. shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being
  157. disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the
  158. Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules
  159. and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.
  160. Section 8. The Congress shall have Power To lay and collect
  161. Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debt and
  162. provide for the common Defense and general Welfare of the
  163. United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be
  164. uniform throughout the United States;
  165. To borrow money on the credit of the United States;
  166. To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the
  167. several States, and with the Indian Tribes;
  168. To establish an uniform rule of Naturalization, and uniform
  169. Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United
  170. States;
  171. To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign
  172. Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;
  173. To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the
  174. Securities and current Coin of the United States;
  175. To establish Post Offices and post Roads;
  176. To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by
  177. securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the
  178. exclusive Right to their respective Writings and
  179. Discoveries;
  180. To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;
  181. To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the
  182. high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations;
  183. To declare War, grand Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and to
  184. make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;
  185. To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money
  186. to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
  187. To provide and maintain a Navy;
  188. To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land
  189. and naval Forces;
  190. To provide for calling for the Militia to execute the
  191. Laws of the Union; suppress Insurrections and repel
  192. Invasions;
  193. To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the
  194. Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be
  195. employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to
  196. the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers,
  197. and the Authority of training the Militia according to the
  198. discipline prescribed by Congress;
  199. To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever,
  200. over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may,
  201. by Cession of particular States, and the acceptance of
  202. Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United
  203. States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places
  204. purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in
  205. which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts,
  206. Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful
  207. Building;--And
  208. To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for
  209. carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other
  210. Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the
  211. United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.
  212. Section 9. The Migration or Importation of such Persons as
  213. any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit,
  214. shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year
  215. one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may
  216. be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars
  217. for each Person.
  218. The privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be
  219. suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the
  220. public Safety may require it.
  221. No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.
  222. No capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in
  223. Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before
  224. directed to be taken.
  225. No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any
  226. State.
  227. No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce
  228. or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another:
  229. nor shall Vessels bound to, or from one State, be obliged to
  230. enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.
  231. No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in
  232. Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular
  233. Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of
  234. all public Money shall be published from time to time.
  235. No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States:
  236. And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under
  237. them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of
  238. any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind
  239. whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.
  240. Section 10. No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance,
  241. or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin
  242. Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and
  243. silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of
  244. Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the
  245. Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.
  246. No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay any
  247. Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be
  248. absolutely necessary for executing it's inspection Laws:
  249. and the net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any
  250. State on Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the
  251. Treasury of the United States; and all such Laws shall be
  252. subject to the Revision and Controul of the Congress.
  253. No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any
  254. duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of
  255. Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another
  256. State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless
  257. actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not
  258. admit of delay.
  259. Article II.
  260. Section 1. The executive Power shall be vested in a
  261. President of the United States of America. He shall hold his
  262. Office during the term of four Years, and, together with the
  263. Vice-President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as
  264. follows.
  265. Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature
  266. thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole
  267. Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State
  268. may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or
  269. Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or
  270. Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an
  271. Elector.
  272. [The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote
  273. by Ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be
  274. an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they
  275. shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the
  276. Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and
  277. certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government
  278. of the United States, directed to the President of the
  279. Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence
  280. of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the
  281. Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The
  282. Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the
  283. President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number
  284. of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who
  285. have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then
  286. the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by
  287. Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a
  288. Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said
  289. House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in
  290. chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States,
  291. the representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum
  292. for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from
  293. two-thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States
  294. shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the
  295. Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest
  296. Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President.
  297. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes,
  298. the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the
  299. Vice-President.]
  300. The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors,
  301. and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day
  302. shall be the same throughout the United States.
  303. No person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the
  304. United States, at the time of Adoption of this Constitution,
  305. shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall
  306. any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have
  307. attained to the Age of thirty-five Years, and been fourteen
  308. Years a Resident within the United States.
  309. In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or of
  310. his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers
  311. and Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the
  312. Vice President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the
  313. Case of Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of
  314. the President and Vice President, declaring what Officer
  315. shall then act as President, and such Officer shall act
  316. accordingly, until the Disability be removed, or a President
  317. shall be elected.
  318. The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his
  319. Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be encreased
  320. nor diminished during the Period for which he shall have
  321. been elected, and he shall not receive within that Period
  322. any other Emolument from the United States, or any of them.
  323. Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall
  324. take the following Oath or Affirmation:--``I do solemnly
  325. swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office
  326. of President of the United States, and will to the best of
  327. my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of
  328. the United States.''
  329. Section 2. The President shall be Commander in Chief of the
  330. Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of
  331. the several States, when called into the actual Service of
  332. the United States; he may require the Opinion in writing, of
  333. the principal Officer in each of the executive Departments,
  334. upon any subject relating to the Duties of their respective
  335. Offices, and he shall have Power to Grant Reprives and
  336. Pardons for Offenses against the United States, except in
  337. Cases of Impeachment.
  338. He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent of
  339. the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two-thirds of the
  340. Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and
  341. with the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint
  342. Ambassadors, other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of
  343. the supreme Court, and all other Officers of the United
  344. States, whose Appointments are not herein otherwise provided
  345. for, and which shall be established by Law: but the Congress
  346. may by Law vest the Appointment of such inferior Officers,
  347. as they think proper, in the President alone, in the Courts
  348. of Law, or in the Heads of Departments.
  349. The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies that
  350. may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting
  351. Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next
  352. Session.
  353. Section 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress
  354. Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to
  355. their Consideration such Measures as he shall judge
  356. necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions,
  357. convene both Houses, or either of them, and in Case of
  358. Disagreement between them, with Respect to the Time of
  359. Adjournment, he may adjourn them to such Time as he shall
  360. think proper; he shall receive Ambassadors and other public
  361. Ministers he shall take Care that the Laws be faithfully
  362. executed, and shall Commission all the Officers of the
  363. United States.
  364. Section 4. The President, Vice President and all civil
  365. Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office
  366. on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or
  367. other high Crimes and Misdemeanors.
  368. Article III.
  369. Section 1. The judicial Power of the United States, shall be
  370. vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as
  371. the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.
  372. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall
  373. hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at
  374. stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation
  375. which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in
  376. Office.
  377. Section 2. The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases, in
  378. Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of
  379. the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made
  380. under their Authority;--to all Cases affecting Ambassadors,
  381. other public Ministers and Consuls;--to all Cases of
  382. admiralty and maritime Jurisdiction;--to Controversies to
  383. which the United States shall be a Party;--to Controversies
  384. between two or more States;--between a State and Citizens of
  385. another State;--between Citizens of different
  386. States;--between Citizens of the same State claiming Lands
  387. under Grants of different States, and between a State, or
  388. the Citizens thereof, and foreign States, Citizens or
  389. Subjects.
  390. In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public Ministers
  391. and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party, the
  392. supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction. In all the
  393. other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have
  394. appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such
  395. Exceptions, and Under such Regulations as the Congress shall
  396. make.
  397. The trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment,
  398. shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State
  399. where the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when
  400. not committed within any State, the Trial shall be at such
  401. Place and Places as the Congress may by Law have directed.
  402. Section 3. Treason against the United States, shall consist
  403. only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their
  404. Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort. No Person shall be
  405. convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two
  406. Witnesses to the same overt Act, or on Confession in Open
  407. Court.
  408. The Congress shall have power to declare the Punishment of
  409. Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption
  410. of Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person
  411. attained.
  412. Article IV.
  413. Section 1. Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each
  414. State to the public Acts, Records, and judicial Proceedings
  415. of every other State. And the Congress may by general Laws
  416. prescribe the Manner in which such Acts, records and
  417. Proceedings shall be proved, and the Effect thereof.
  418. Section 2. The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to
  419. all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several
  420. States.
  421. A person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or other
  422. Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another
  423. State, shall on demand of the executive Authority of the
  424. State from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to
  425. the State having Jurisdiction of the Crime.
  426. No Person held to Service or Labour in one State, under the
  427. Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence
  428. of any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such
  429. Service or Labour, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the
  430. Party to whom such Service or Labour may be due.
  431. Section 3. New States may be admitted by the Congress into
  432. this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected
  433. within the Jurisdiction of any other State; nor any State be
  434. formed by the Junction of two or more States, or parts of
  435. States, without the Consent of the Legislatures of the
  436. States concerned as well as of the Congress.
  437. The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all
  438. needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or
  439. other Property belonging to the United States; and nothing
  440. in this Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice
  441. any Claims of the United States, or of any particular State.
  442. Section 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State
  443. in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall
  444. protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of
  445. the Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature
  446. cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.
  447. Article V.
  448. The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem
  449. it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution,
  450. or, on the Application of the Legislatures of two-thirds of
  451. the several States, shall call a Convention for proposing
  452. Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all
  453. Intents and Purposes, as part of this Constitution, when
  454. ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the several
  455. States, or by Conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the
  456. one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the
  457. Congress; Provided that no Amendment which may be made prior
  458. to the Year One thousand eight hundred and eight shall in
  459. any Manner affect the first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth
  460. Section of the first Article; and that no State, without its
  461. Consent, shall be deprived of its equal Suffrage in the
  462. Senate.
  463. Article VI.
  464. All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into, before
  465. the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against
  466. the United States under this Constitution, as under the
  467. Confederation.
  468. This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which
  469. shall be made in Persuance thereof; and all Treaties made,
  470. or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United
  471. States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges
  472. in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the
  473. Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary
  474. notwithstanding.
  475. The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the
  476. Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive
  477. and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of the
  478. several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to
  479. support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever
  480. be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust
  481. under the United States.
  482. Article VII.
  483. The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States shall be
  484. sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution
  485. between the States so ratifying the Same.
  486. Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States
  487. present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our
  488. Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the
  489. Independence of the United States of America the Twelth. In
  490. witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names.
  492. Presidt and deputy from Virginia
  493. New Hampshire. Delaware.
  494. John Langdan Geo: Read
  495. Nicholas Gilman John Dickinson
  496. Jaco: Broom
  497. Gunning Bedford jun
  498. Massachusetts. Richard Bassett
  499. Nathaniel Gorham
  500. Rufus King Maryland.
  501. James McHenry
  502. Connecticut. Danl Carroll
  503. Dan: of St Thos Jenifer
  504. Wm Saml Johnson
  505. Roger Sherman
  506. Virginia.
  507. New York. John Blair--
  508. James Madison Jr.
  509. Alexander Hamilton
  510. North Carolina.
  511. New Jersey.
  512. Wm Blount
  513. Wil: Livingston Hu Williamson
  514. David Brearley. Richd Dobbs Spaight.
  515. Wm Patterson
  516. Jona: Dayton
  517. South Carolina.
  518. Pennsylvania. J. Rutledge
  519. Charles Pinckney
  520. B. Franklin Charles Cotesworth Pinckney
  521. Robt. Morris Pierce Butler
  522. Thos. Fitzsimons
  523. James Wilson
  524. Thomas Mifflin Georgia.
  525. Geo. Clymer
  526. Jared Ingersoll William Few
  527. Gouv Morris Abr Baldwin
  528. Attest:
  529. WILLIAM JACKSON, Secretary.
  530. Articles in Addition To, and Amendment Of, the Constitution
  531. of the United States of America, Proposed by Congress, and
  532. Ratified by the Legislatures of the Several States, Pursuant
  533. to the Fifth Article of the Original Constitution.
  534. Article I.
  535. Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of
  536. religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or
  537. abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the
  538. right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition
  539. the Government for a redress of grievances.
  540. Article II.
  541. A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of
  542. a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms,
  543. shall not be infringed.
  544. Article III.
  545. No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any
  546. house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war,
  547. but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
  548. Article IV.
  549. The right of the people to be secure in their persons,
  550. houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches
  551. and seizures, shall not be violated and no Warrants shall
  552. issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or
  553. affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be
  554. searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
  555. Article V.
  556. No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or
  557. otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or
  558. indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the
  559. land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual
  560. service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any
  561. person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in
  562. jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any
  563. criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be
  564. deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process
  565. of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use,
  566. without just compensation.
  567. Article VI.
  568. In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the
  569. right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of
  570. the State and district wherein the crime shall have been
  571. committed, which district shall have been previously
  572. ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and
  573. cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses
  574. against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining
  575. witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of
  576. Counsel for his defense.
  577. Article VII.
  578. In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall
  579. exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be
  580. preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise
  581. reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according
  582. to the rules of the common law.
  583. Article VIII.
  584. Excessive bail shall not be required, or excessive fines
  585. imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
  586. Article IX.
  587. The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights,
  588. shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained
  589. by the people.
  590. Article X.
  591. The powers not delegated to the United States by the
  592. Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are
  593. reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.
  594. Article XI.
  595. The Judicial power of the United States shall not be
  596. construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced
  597. or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens
  598. of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign
  599. State.
  600. Article XII.
  601. The Electors shall meet in their respective sates and vote
  602. by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at
  603. least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with
  604. themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person
  605. voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person
  606. voted for as Vice-President, and they shall make distinct
  607. lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all
  608. persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of
  609. votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and
  610. transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United
  611. States, directed to the President of the Senate;--The
  612. President of the Senate shall, in presence of the Senate and
  613. House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the
  614. votes shall then be counted;--The person having the greatest
  615. number of votes for President, shall be the President, if
  616. such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors
  617. appointed; and if no person have such majority, then from
  618. the persons having the highest numbers not exceeding three
  619. on the list of those voted for as President, the House of
  620. Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the
  621. President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be
  622. taken by states, the representation from each state having
  623. one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a
  624. member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a
  625. majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice.
  626. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a
  627. President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon
  628. them, before the fourth day of March next following, then
  629. the Vice-President shall act as President, as in the case of
  630. the death or other constitutional disability of the
  631. President.--The person having the greatest number of votes
  632. as Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such
  633. number be a majority of the whole number of Electors
  634. appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the
  635. two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the
  636. Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall consist of
  637. two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority
  638. of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no
  639. person constitutionally ineligible to the office of
  640. President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President of the
  641. United States.
  642. Article XIII.
  643. Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except
  644. as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been
  645. duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any
  646. place subject to their jurisdiction.
  647. Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article
  648. by appropriate legislation.
  649. Article XIV.
  650. Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United
  651. States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens
  652. of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.
  653. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge
  654. the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United
  655. States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life,
  656. liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny
  657. to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection
  658. of the laws.
  659. Section 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the
  660. several States according to their respective numbers,
  661. counting the whole number of persons in each State,
  662. excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at
  663. any election for the choice of electors for President and
  664. Vice-President of the United States, Representatives in
  665. Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or
  666. the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of
  667. the male inhabitants of such state, being twenty-one years
  668. of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any
  669. abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other
  670. crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced
  671. in the proportion which the number of such male citizens
  672. shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one
  673. years of age in such State.
  674. Section 3. No person shall be a Senator or Representative in
  675. Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or
  676. hold any office, civil or military, under the United States,
  677. or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as
  678. a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States,
  679. or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive
  680. or judicial officer of any State, to support the
  681. Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in
  682. insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or
  683. comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote
  684. of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.
  685. Section 4. The validity of the public debt of the United
  686. States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for
  687. payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing
  688. insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But
  689. neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay
  690. any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or
  691. rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the
  692. loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts,
  693. obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.
  694. Section 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by
  695. appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
  696. Article XV.
  697. Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to
  698. vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or
  699. by any State on account of race, color, or previous
  700. condition of servitude--
  701. Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this
  702. article by appropriate legislation.
  703. Article XVI.
  704. The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on
  705. incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment
  706. among the several States, and without regard to any census
  707. or enumeration.
  708. Article XVII.
  709. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two
  710. Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for
  711. six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The
  712. electors in each State shall have the qualifications
  713. requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the
  714. State legislatures.
  715. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in
  716. the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall
  717. issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided,
  718. That the legislature of any State may empower the executive
  719. thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill
  720. the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.
  721. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the
  722. election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes
  723. valid as part of the Constitution.
  724. Article XVIII.
  725. Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this
  726. article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of
  727. intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into,
  728. or the exportation thereof from the United States and all
  729. territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage
  730. purposes is hereby prohibited.
  731. Section 2. The Congress and the several States shall have
  732. concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate
  733. legislation.
  734. Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall
  735. have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by
  736. the legislature of the several States, as provided in the
  737. Constitution, within seven years from the date of the
  738. submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
  739. Article XIX.
  740. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not
  741. be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State
  742. on account of sex.
  743. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by
  744. appropriate legislation.
  745. Article XX.
  746. Section 1. The terms of the President and Vice President
  747. shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms
  748. of Senators and representatives at noon on the 3d day of
  749. January, of the years in which such terms would have ended
  750. if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of
  751. their successors shall then begin.
  752. Section 2. The congress shall assemble at least once in
  753. every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d
  754. day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different
  755. day.
  756. Section 3. If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the
  757. term of the President, the President elect shall have died,
  758. the Vice President elect shall become President. If a
  759. President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed
  760. for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect
  761. shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect
  762. shall act as President until a President shall have
  763. qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case
  764. wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect
  765. shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as
  766. President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be
  767. selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a
  768. President or Vice President shall have qualified.
  769. Section 4. The Congress may by law provide for the case of
  770. the death of any of the persons from whom the House of
  771. Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of
  772. choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of
  773. the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may
  774. choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall
  775. have devolved upon them.
  776. Section 5. Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th
  777. day of October following the ratification of this article.
  778. Section 6. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall
  779. have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by
  780. the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States
  781. within seven years from the date of its submission.
  782. Article XXI.
  783. Section 1. The eighteenth article of amendment to the
  784. Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.
  785. Section 2 The transportation or importation into any State,
  786. Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery
  787. or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the
  788. laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.
  789. Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall
  790. have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by
  791. conventions in the several States, as provided in the
  792. Constitution, within seven years from the date of the
  793. submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
  794. Article XXII.
  795. Section 1. No person shall be elected to the office of the
  796. President more than twice, and no person who has held the
  797. office of President, or acted as President, for more than
  798. two years of a term to which some other person was elected
  799. President shall be elected to the office of the President
  800. more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any
  801. person holding the office of President when this Article was
  802. proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person
  803. who may be holding the office of President, or acting as
  804. President, during the term within which this Article become
  805. operative from holding the office of President or acting as
  806. President during the remainder of such term.
  807. Section 2. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall
  808. have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by
  809. the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States
  810. within seven years from the date of its submission to the
  811. States by the Congress.
  812. Article XXIII.
  813. Section I. The District constituting the seat of Government
  814. of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the
  815. Congress may direct:
  816. A number of electors of President and Vice President equal
  817. to the whole number of Senators and Representative in
  818. Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were
  819. a State, but in no event more than the least populous
  820. State; they shall be in addition to those appointed by the
  821. States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of
  822. the election of President and Vice President, to be electors
  823. appointed by a State; and they shall meet in the District
  824. and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article
  825. of amendment.
  826. Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this
  827. article by appropriate legislation.
  828. Article XXIV.
  829. Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to
  830. vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice
  831. President, for electors for President or Vice President, or
  832. for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be
  833. denied or abridged by the United States or any State by
  834. reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.
  835. Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this
  836. article by appropriate legislation.
  837. Article XXV.
  838. Section 1. In the case of the removal of the President from
  839. office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President
  840. shall become President.
  841. Section 2. Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the
  842. Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice
  843. President who shall take office upon confirmation by a
  844. majority vote of both Houses of Congress.
  845. Section 3. Whenever the President transmits to the President
  846. pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of
  847. Representative his written declaration that he is unable to
  848. discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he
  849. transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary,
  850. such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice
  851. President as Acting President.
  852. Section 4. Whenever the Vice President and a majority of
  853. either the principal officers of the executive departments
  854. or of such other body as Congress may by law provide,
  855. transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the
  856. Speaker of the House of Representatives their written
  857. declaration that the President is unable to discharge the
  858. power and duties of his office, the Vice President shall
  859. immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as
  860. Acting President.
  861. Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President
  862. pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of
  863. Representatives his written declaration that no inability
  864. exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office
  865. unless the Vice President and a majority of either the
  866. principal officers of the executive department or of such
  867. other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within
  868. four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the
  869. Speaker of the House of Representatives their written
  870. declaration that the President is unable to discharge the
  871. powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall
  872. decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for
  873. that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within
  874. twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written
  875. declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within
  876. twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble,
  877. determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the
  878. President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of
  879. his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge
  880. the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall
  881. resume the powers and duties of his office.
  882. Article XXVI.
  883. Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States, who
  884. are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be
  885. denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on
  886. account of age.
  887. Section 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this
  888. article by appropriate legislation.
  889. Article XXVII.
  890. No law, varying the compensation for the services of the
  891. Senators and Representatives, shall take effect, until an
  892. election of representatives shall have intervened.